“Grammar is an integral part of any language teaching process and it generally refers to the structural foundation of a language, as a system of words that demonstrate the fluency of structure (morphology) and the arrangement of sentences (syntax). Often, the definition encompasses the pronunciation of words (phonology), the meaning of words (semantics) as well as the origin of words (etymology) (Stathis & Gotsch, 2013; Winch, et al, 2011). Contrasting definitions however, emphasise that grammar refers to a system of rules and regulation in the English language that facilitates individuals to accurately communicate orally and in written format (Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 2008; Azar &Hagen, 2006; Winch, et al, 2011).”
Functional grammar uses real functional building blocks of word-groups, whole texts, clauses and sentences which are then further subdivided into categories: the participant, the process and the circumstance. It looks at 'What' grammar can do in texts. Whereas, Traditional grammar looks at 'How' grammar is depicted in a text. This is usually identified through parts of speech, phonetics, words and phrases. Commonly, traditional grammar is considered a bottom up approach. However, the two grammatical teaching approaches can be used complimentary to enrich learning for middle and upper primary school children’s education. The best way to teach grammar would be to merged these two approaches in an engaging and interactive manner, such as providing learning experiences which are of familiarity of children such as games, songs, hands-on activities to optimise understanding and retention of the skills and knowledge required in daily life.